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Everyone is Welcome into the Heart of Holiness David, for he wants to help you with your questions! Nothing is too simple or complicated! Semiconductor World Trainer! He loves computers and he loves you too! Email holinessdavid@alightfromwithin.org

Thursday, February 11, 2016

Your computer will not boot: here's some help

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.

Hello Relatives,
First thing we need discuss is what is expected or hoped for from you and from me:
I love helping people with their computers, but you need to help as well.  Primarily, I need information about your computer: make, model and model number, operating system like Windows 7 or  Mac OS9.
With out this information, I might not be able to help.  So, this information is critical.

I am disabled and try to help people to help themselves by bringing to their attention what is already available. Like from Support on the manufacturer website or what is already on the computer in question like the Recovery partition (on HP computers F10 at bootup will invoke the Recovery software). I try to do everything FREE.
If I need to meet with you (in the San Francisco bay area, please) it will mean a donation to the church (supplies like gasoline, the price of a cup of coffee, SanDisk flash drive, or blank DVDs; things like that).

What did you hope to accomplish with our connecting?

Ok, shall we start?
Question: what operating system are you using to communicate with me right now?

The information I'm going to teach you will help you to rescue your computer(s).
Here's what we're going to do:
A. download Linux Mint operating system,
B. use MD5 SUM to verify the download integrity,
C. use Windows 7 or Windows 10 software to burn the bootable Linux Mint operating system onto DVD, or
D. use UNetbootin to burn a bootable Linux Mint to flash drive.
E. use Linux Mint as a not-installed operating system to retrieve your personal data and to completely erase (called a low level format) the hard drive for a clean install of Window 7 or Windows 10
F. after your computer(s) are up and running, feel free to Install Linux Mint. This will give the capability of having a backup operating system and is also fun to learn to use. Just boot to the Linux Mint DVD or flash drive and click Install Linux Mint on the desktop. During the installation, be sure you “install along side of the Windows system” that is detected. This is the only critical part of the installation: if you choose otherwise, you will wipe your Windows operating system off of the hard drive!

1. The person I wrote this procedure for was having problems when upgrading from Windows Vista to Windows 7.  I recommended a clean install (where the hard drive is wiped clean  with a low-level format, which I will instruct you on.
If you can recover to factory Windows 7 save all of your information to DVD or an external USB drive (the USB drive can be a flash drive or an external hard drive (what I do is buy a $40 500GB, 7200RPM hard drive and a case for it, $25 or less). You'll find her files under C:\user\name she is using to sign in; or you can backup using Windows 7 software.  I don't have Windows in front of me so try finding “backup” on the start menu.

2. On the Linux Mint, may I suggest the version 17.3 64 bit XFCE.  Be sure that you get the 64 bit version: it's twice as fast.
Here's the link: http://www.linuxmint.com/edition.php?id=214.  Scroll down to one of USA mirrors, click on
kernel.org or Linux Freedom (the ones I commonly use) and the download will start.
Problems you might have: If your source is one of poor download speed, or if you have troubles with the MD5 check sum (this happens when you have to restart the down-loader several times).
You can bring or send me two 16GB flash drives (16GB SanDisk flash drive at Walmart for $8+tax) and I will set you up with 1 USB flash drive and 1 DVD both ready to install Linux Mint..

3. MD5 Check Sum:  at the top of the Linux Mint download page is a line where it says
"Information about this edition" Look down to "MD5"  The number to the right is the sum of all bits of the download; sometimes called a check sum.  When you run MD5 Sum on the downloaded file and the numbers match, you have a good download.
Now go to your downloads folder; single-left-click on the file “linuxmint-17.3-xfce-64bit.iso” that you just downloaded. Single-right-click and look for MD5 sum, hash or something like that (might be on one of the tabs in Properties).  The MD5 sum software will do the calculation to see if the file check sum is the correct.

4. If when you right click on the downloaded file, you do not see MD5 Sum, you can easily download the software to do it.  http://implbits.com/products/hashtab/.  On the upper right corner of the webpage, click on
Get Hash Tabs get it started.  They will send you a download link.  Look at the screen shots below the download box to learn more about how it works; it's very simple.

5. To burn the DVD, put a new, clean, unused DVD into the DVD drawer.
Using your Windows 7 software: open Windows Explorer (not Internet Explorer).
Locate the Linux Mint file in Downloads. Single-left-click the desired file. At the top of the window that shows the files, you'll see “Burn DVD”  Click on that and it will burn the DVD for you.
For Windows 10, single-left-click the file, single-right-click and click on Open ISO Viewer. There is an icon at the top to “Burn the DVD”

6. To burn Linux Mint to flash drive
I use: Unetbootin. So after you have downloaded your new Linux Mint 17.3 XFCE.iso and have verified that it is good with Hash Tabs, you'll need to burn it to memory stick/flash drive.  I use “Unetbootin” Download this from http://unetbootin.github.io/#install.
Looking at the screen shots on the UNetbootin website, you'll see that you can download the operating system from that program, but I've had troubles with it. So, just use it for burning the USB flash drive. Following the instructions on the UNetbootin website, you can easily create a bootable flash drive.

7. Now to teach you how to boot to the desired device, be it the DVD or USB flash drive.
When booting the computer, look carefully and quickly (doesn't last very long) to see which keys to use to access boot option or access to BIOS.  You can also look at your downloaded User Guide for this information.
Some computers will allow you to select boot option with the ESC key or access BIOS with F2 or F10. 
When you get into boot options, select booting to DVD or USB.  reboot and watch it happen.
If you need to get into BIOS, it's a little more difficult.  Please let me know if you have to select boot source from BIOS.  I can walk you through it.

8. How are you doing with all of this? Am I going too fast?  Not enough information or too much information, let me know.
To repeat, if this is too much, just bring me a couple (2) of 16GB flash drives (Walmart has 16GB SanDisk for $8+tax). I'll return to you a flash drive and a DVD both loaded with Linux Mint 17.3 XFCE.  You can use them for system data as mentioned or you can install Linux Mint along side another operating system (called Dual Boot).

All of it is easy and very useful. For example, with a crashed computer or a computer that will not boot, you can use your newly created Linux Mint DVD or flash drive to boot into the dead computer to retrieve your personal files. You can run the computer from the DVD/flash drive without installing it.

9. You can use the Windows 7 DVD or Linux Mint to gain access to the hard drive to get your personal information.  In Windows, the the main hard drive is C:, (in Linux it is dev/sda sometimes just sda)
From the Linux Mint start menu (lower left, just like Windows), find
Accessories, single-left- click, find Disks and then single-right-click on Disks.
In the left pane, identify the hard drive by drive capacity/size and single-left-click to highlight it. On the right pane you will see that it is identified as /dev/sda
The gear-looking icon offers actions will give you the option to format. Click on the gear icon and click on
Format. In the next box, use the arrow to select low-level format.NOTE: this will erase everything on the hard drive that you selected in the left pane.  You quit out of Linux Mint by clicking on the start icon, click on Logout and selecting Shut down

Now you can insert your Windows 7 DVD and perform a clean install. Your previous Windows system  is gone and will no longer affect your freshly installed Windows operating system!!
Wow, what do you think of all of this?

When we get your computer(s) working, there is a lot of good, useful computer aids on this blog.  Please look around.

Holiness David Weekley

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

I Love My Computer

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

Youtube Downloader

Youtube videos - & there is a free piece of software called 'youtubedownloader'. download this - http://youtubedownload.altervista.org/

from youtube to mp3

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the sliest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

To Blogger Feedback

Description: Relatives, Oh my, the whole page moves left and cannot access it. This is troublesome, because I have to reload the page over and over until it works. And both chrome and firefox does the same thing. So we know it's on your end. Make it more stable please. Good luck. by the way, each time I send feedback, the whole page moves back. it is never captured. Since I can't send you my own image, next time, I will send a url of the picture of my page on blogger posts. Thank you, Whitebuffalocalfwoman@gmail.com


Relatives, Here is a real picture of the whole thing moved left and even after several directions of entering the post, still stays left. I have to leave the post, wait awhile, then return. I guess waiting for a reset on your end. whitebuffalocalfwoman@gmail.com blogger of 100's of blogs

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Web Applications Engineering: Udacity CX253


Courses and Enrollment http://www.udacity.com/courses

Google Plus https://plus.google.com/116286004036789369492/posts
Facebook http://www.facebook.com/pages/Udacity/174179219354091?sk=wall
Twitter http://twitter.com/udacity

Welcome to CS 253 - Web Application Engineering!

Sean Bennett - 11:03:24 PM Apr 16, 2012

Welcome to Web Application Engineering! During this course, you'll learn how the web and web applications work, build your own web applications, and actually put them online to share with others using Google App Engine.
If you've never had any experience with web programming before, don't worry! All you need is some basic knowledge of Python, similar to what you would learn in CS 101http://www.udacity.com/overview/Course/cs101/CourseRev/apr2012. Steve Huffman, the creator of Reddit and Hipmunk, is going to be teaching you all about web applications, along with everything he wished he knew about them when he was first getting started. He's been working hard to put together a course that you'll all enjoy and learn a lot in!
The course is going to be structured in 7 units. Each unit will include lecture videos, embedded quizzes, and homework assignments. Each unit will be released once a week on Mondays. Homework assignments will be released on Tuesdays and will be due the following week on Mondays at 11:59 UTC. We also have a course forum and wiki pages with course notes and additional material to help you with each unit. At the end of the course, we'll have a final exam, and everyone who completes the course will be given a certificate and a grade to show their accomplishment!

  • Unit 1
  • Homework 1
  • Homework Help 1
  • Office Hours 1
  • Unit 2
  • Homework 2
  • Office Hours 2
  • Unit 3
  • Homework 3

Web Application Engineering

Description: Web applications have the power to provide useful services to millions of people worldwide. In this class, you will learn how to build your own blog application starting from the basics of how the web works and how to set up a web application and process user input, to how to use databases, manage user accounts, interact with other web services, and make your application scale to support large numbers of users.
How the Web Works
Introduction to HTTP and Web Applications

How to Have Users
Getting and processing user input

How to Manage State
Databases and persistent data

Whom to Trust
User authentication and access control

How to Connect
Web applications as services, using APIs

How to Serve Millions
Scaling, caching, optimizations

Changing the World
Building a successful web application, project



This course assumes previous programming experience, comparable to what is covered by the Udacity CS101 course.


Is there a fee to take the course?
Nope, no fees. All of our classes are offered free of charge.
Can you enroll in more than one class? 
Yes! Keep in mind CS101 is intended for students with no previous programming background, CS212, 253 and 262 are courses oriented towards students with some programming experience (the equivalent of CS101), while CS373 and CS387 assumes students have prior programming experience.
When do classes start?
April 16, 2012.
When do I have to be online to watch the lectures?
The lectures are posted each week for you to view at your convenience.
How is the class formatted?
The class is broken into 6 week-long units and a seventh week that wraps up the course and has a final exam. Each unit contains multiple lecture segments with interactive quizzes built in. There will be one homework assignment which will include programming problems each week. There will be approximately 50 minutes of lecture videos.
Will there be closed captioning?
Yes, the videos will have captions in English. We're also working to support other languages in future.
What will I get for completing the classes?
Students who complete a course will also receive a certificate signed by the instructors.


Steve Huffman co-founded the social news site reddit.com in 2005 with his college roommate. reddit.com has since grown into one of the largest communities online. In 2010, he co-founded Hipmunk, a company to take the agony out of searching for plane and hotel tickets. Steve was named to Inc. Magazine's 30 under 30 list in 2011. He studied Computer Science at the University of Virginia.

Sean once grew a 3 foot long (almost 1 meter) beard while camping in the northern United States. He won't say how long it took to grow this monstrosity, but scientists hypothesize that it sprouted spontaneously in some primitive response to too much computer programming ability. When Sean isn't shaving, you can find him practicing forms of martial arts that are so difficult most humans can't even pronounce them. After honing his skills in the gym, he puts them to use in the interpreter where he systematically finds and kills every bug he encounters. Don't mess with Sean.

CS253 - Unit 1: The Basics

Course Outline
World Wide Web
Quiz: Course Outline
Quiz: File Types
Quiz: Components of the Web
Quiz: Best Browser
Intro to HTML
The Bold Tag
Quiz: Bold Tag
More Tags
Quiz: Italics
Quiz: Missing End Tag
Making Links
Quiz: Making Links
Adding Images
Quiz: Whitespace
Quiz: Paragraph Tag
Inline vs. Block
Span and Div
Quiz: Span and Div
Document Structure
Introducing URLs
Quiz: Correct URL
Query Parameters
Quiz: Query Parameters
Quiz: Port
Quiz: GET
Quiz: Most Common Method
Making Requests
User Agent Header
Quiz: Valid Headers
http Response
Response Headers
Quiz: Telnet Request
Web Applications
Quiz: Dynamic Content

1. Course Outline
In this class you will learn how to build web applications! Throughout this course you will be building a blog that will have user registration and allow you to submit user entries. This blog will be online for anyone to see and play with!

In this unit you are going to cover the following basics of the web:

the web- what it is, what it looks like and how the pieces fit together
HTML- the main document type of the web
URLs-how you refer to documents on the web
HTTP- the protocol that the web runs on
Web Applications- what they are and how they fit into the big picture
2. World Wide Web
The world wide web is a collection of HTML documents. HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language and it is the basis for almost every webpage – it is what glues everything together.

The links between pages are called hyper links, or just links, give the internet its web-like characteristic.

The web was invented in the early 1990’s and has somewhere around 30 billion pages!

2.1. Quiz: Course Outline

What is the main type of document on the web?

b. Microsoft Word
c. PDF
d. Plain Text
2.2. Quiz: File Types

What type of files can be found on the web?

a. Plain text
c. Images
d. Videos
e. Music
2.3. Quiz: Components of the Web


Using the letters that are associated with each piece of technology and match them up with their name and definition.

HTTP – the main protocol of the web
Servers – computers that host the files that makes up the web
Internet – the world’s largest computer network
Browser – a program that runs on your computer to display files found on the web
2.4. Quiz: Best Browser

Which of these browsers is the best?

a. Internet Explorer
b. Firefox
c. Chrome
d. Safari
e. Opera
3. Intro to HTML
HTML, or HyperText Markup Language is the heart of the web. It is made up of:

text content, which is what you see
markup, which is what the content looks like
references to other documents, for example, images and videos
links to other pages
Explore HTML here, www.udacity.com/html_playground, and play around in this fake little test browser. 

A few things to note:

Plain text is plain text in HTML, for the most part. 2012-04-05-Image2.jpg

If you want to make the text look different you have to use markup.

HTML markup is made up of things called “tags”. Tags look something like this:

The contents can include other tags, or it may just be text. The tag is called the “opening tag” and the tag is called the “closing tag”. Notice that the only difference between the opening and closing tags is that the closing tag has a slash, /, in front of the tag name.

The whole construct: Contents can also be referred to as “an element”.

Let’s learn about our first tag.

3.1. The Bold Tag

The first tag we are going to learn about is the bold tag. It looks like this:

It has an opening tag and a closing tag with the slash, and anything that appears between the opening and closing tags appears bold.

b for bold.

OK, quiz time:

3.2. Quiz: Bold Tag

In the box below, make the words reasonably straightforward bold:

3.3. More Tags

Now we want to teach you another tag. This is the tag. em stands for emphasis, and it makes things italic. The complete element will look like this:

There is the opening tag, the contents that we want to appear italic, and then the closing tag with the slash. The structure is just like the bold tag we saw earlier.

3.4. Quiz: Italics

What we want you to do is to make the phrase 'HTML is reasonably straightforward' italic.

3.5. Quiz: Missing End Tag

What would happen if we were to forget to close the tag in our example?

Nothing is italicised
The browser crashes
Everything after is italicised
Your guess is as good as mine
3.6. Making Links

Now we will teach you all a new concept. This is HTML attributes. Attributes appear something like this:

We still have our opening tag name and the closing tag as before, but now we have this new thing called an attribute.

Attributes have a name (in the example above it is simple called ATTR) and a value (inside the quotes). Tags may have multiple attributes.

An example of a tag that uses attributes is the anchor tag , and a full example would look something like this:

Here, within the opening tag we have the opening a, an attribute called href, the value of the attribute which is a URL in this case. If this were rendered in a browser we would just see the word “derp”, but it would be a link to reddit.com.

3.7. Quiz: Making Links

Make the words my favorite in the phrase below a link to udacity.com.

4. Adding Images
The next tag we are going to introduce is the image tag. The image tag looks like this, , and you won’t be surprised to learn it is for including images. The image tag has the following structure:

The image tag has an attribute names src (for “source”) which equals the URL which is the location of the image file to be downloaded. This is followed by a second attribute called alt. This stands for “alternate” and is the text that is to be displayed when the image doesn’t load.

The alt attribute is “required” in the sense that html parsers will complain at you if it is not there. Nothing will actually break if it is missing but it is really good practice to include it. If the image is moved or the requested URL is missing for some reason, this is the text that is displayed.

The text associated with the alt attribute is also the text picked up by the reading software used by blind people to access the web. It doesn’t take much effort to add an alt attribute to your images, but it can make somebody’s day just that little bit easier...

There is one more thing to be aware of about the image tag. Every tag we have looked at so far had a closing tag. Image tags don’t. There is not contents to an image tag, and so the closing tag is not required.

Tags, like , that don’t require a closing tag are called void tags.

Images will appear inline with text.

4.1. Whitespace

Let’s talk about whitespace for a moment.

You may have noticed that if you entered text into the editor on multiple lines, the browser window rendered it onto a single line. This is because in HTML, all whitespace, new lines, tabs, spaces are all converted into a single space.

To force the browser to display text on multiple lines we can use another tag called the break tag, and it looks like this:

is also a void tag.

The effect of
is to cause the browser to move to a new line before displaying the next piece of content. Multiple
tags will cause the browser to move down multiple lines before it displays further content.

Another way of creating line-breaks is to use the paragraph tag . The paragraph tag is NOT a void tag. Paragraph tags have content and appear like this:

The content between the opening and closing tags will be rendered by the browser as a single paragraph.

4.2. Quiz: Whitespace

Enter the HTML to draw the following text:

Hello everyone!
We’re using two lines now!
on two lines, using the

4.3. Quiz: Paragraph Tag

OK, now let’s do the same thing, only this time using the paragraph tag. Enter the HTML to draw the following text:

Hello everyone!
We’re using two lines now!
on two lines, using the tag.

5. Inline vs. Block
One last thing I’d like to talk about regarding
and , is the question of why we have two different ways of creating line-breaks? Why do we have the
tag and also the

The answer is that the
tag is what we call an INLINE tag and the tag is what we call a BLOCK tag.

What the
tag was actually doing is telling the browser to end the line.

The tag acts differently. What the
tag does is to create an invisible “box”. So the HTML code:

Creates an invisible “box” around text1. This box can have height and width. Text2 will be outside this “box”.

The differences between inline and block tags will come up a fair amount in this course, and it is important to know that there is a distinction between them and they have different behaviours. So far, all of the elements that we have learned (other then ) are inline elements.

5.1. Span and Div

Two more elements that I’d like to teach you are called Span and Div. Both span and div are normal elements, that is they can both have content:

The only difference between these elements is that span is an inline element whereas div is a block element. The only function of these elements is to contain their content and there is a way of attaching styles to them to change the way in which their contents display. This is done by attaching attributes to the tags so they look something like this:

The class attribute refers to a CSS class. CSS classes are not something that we are going to spend a lot of time on in this course, as we will provide the CSS where needed. CSS is a separate language for adding styles to your documents.

We will be using and
elements a lot to control the layout of text, and the important thing to remember is that is an inline tag, and
is a block tag.

5.2. Quiz: Span and Div

Select all of the elements that are inline. Some of these are elements that you haven’t seen before, so I would like you to trty them out in your browser and see if you can figure it out for yourself:

6. Document Structure
That is enough HTML elements for now. I want to quickly talk about the structure of an actual HTML document before we move on.

What we have seen up until now has just been some very simple markup. We’ve been seeing this like this:

with just a little text and a few simple tags, but an actual HTML document has quite a bit more to it. Here we see a whole lot more HTML:



This is what a complete HTML document looks like. Let’s look at this piece by piece. The first line:

specifies the doctype. i.e. what kind of HTML this is. The “HTML” string within this tag used to be a LOT more complicated, but now that we are using HTML5 we have a nice clean, simple doctype.

The and tags surround the rest of the document providing a kind of “container” for the document.

The and tags enclose the document header. This part of the document contains metadata about the document and other document information. JavaScript and CSS would also be included in the document header.

The element contains the title of the page. This is what will appear at the top of your browser, and in the browser tab, when you open the document.</div><div><br></div><div>Next, we have the <body> and </body> tags that enclose the actual contents of the document. So far, we have been looking at elements that would be included in the body of the document. In fact, most of this course will be concerned with generating the content that fits between the body tags. The rest of the HTML that makes up the document is important, and you will see it, and we’ll be sending it over the wire, but it doesn’t change very often and it is pretty simple. All of the interesting stuff happens between the body tags.</div><div><br></div><div>7. Introducing URLs</div><div>Let’s talk about URLs.</div><div><br></div><div>URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. An example of a URL would look like this:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.udacity.com/</div><div><br></div><div>This has three parts:</div><div><br></div><div>The protocol: http</div><div>The host: www.udacity.com</div><div>The path /</div><div>The protocol can be a number of things. For our purposes this will be http almost all of the time (it can also be https, ftp and some other protocols). It is separated from the host by a colon and two slashes - ://</div><div><br></div><div>The host is the host name or domain name of the server that has the document that we want to access.</div><div><br></div><div>The path is the document we want to access. The shortest possible path is just the single slash.</div><div><br></div><div>7.1. Quiz: Correct URL</div><div><br></div><div>Given the protocol ftp, the host www.udacity.com, and the path /about, what is the URL?</div><div><br></div><div>7.2. Query Parameters</div><div><br></div><div>OK, let’s add something new to our URLs, called Query Parameters (also known as GET Parameters). Here is an example of a query parameter:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com/foo'''?p=1</div><div>This has a simple URL of the type we have already seen, with the path /foo, to which we have added ?p=1. This adds an extra parameter with the name p and the value 1. URLs can have multiple query parameters:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com/foo'''?p=1&q=neat</div><div>The URL now has two query parameters. The fist query parameter is separated from the URL by a question mark, and the query parameters are separated from each other by ampersands.</div><div><br></div><div>So what are query parameters actually for? Query parameters pass information to the server when you request the particular path. This information can be used for all sorts of things and we will discuss some of these later in the class.</div><div><br></div><div>7.3. Quiz: Query Parameters</div><div><br></div><div>In the following URL, what is the value of the z parameter?</div><div><br></div><div>http://example.com/foo?p=foo&z=p</div><div><br></div><div>8. Fragments</div><div>Let’s add one more piece to our URLs. This is a fragment. A fragment is separated from the rest of the URL by a hash sign:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com'''#fragment</div><div>A fragment is usually used to reference a part of the page that you are looking at, although there are some fancier uses if you are going to do some complex JavaScript things.</div><div><br></div><div>The fragment is not sent to the server when you make a request. The fragment just exists in the browser.</div><div><br></div><div>URLs can have both fragments and query parameters, in which case the fragment follows the query parameter(s):</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com/foo'''?'''p=1'''#fragment</div><div>8.1. Port</div><div><br></div><div>The last part of the URL that we are going to look at for now is the port:</div><div><br></div><div>http://localhost''':8000'''/</div><div>When you make a web-request to the server, in order to make an internet connection you need two things:</div><div><br></div><div>the address of the machine (localhost in the example above)</div><div>a port (8000 in the above example)</div><div>By default, the port equals 80. If you want to use a port other than 80, you can include it in the URL between the host and the path, separated from the host by a colon.</div><div><br></div><div>The URL shown in the example above will become very familiar to you. This will be your local development URL for a lot of this course, and also for much of your career as a web developer. You will be constantly accessing your local machine, and you will probably be doing on something other than port 80.</div><div><br></div><div>There are even more parts to a URL, but these aren’t relevant to us right now, so we will deal with them as we go.</div><div><br></div><div>8.2. Quiz: Port</div><div><br></div><div>Identify the different parts of this URL:</div><div><br></div><div>http://example.com:80/toys?p=foo#blah</div><div><br></div><div>host</div><div>protocol</div><div>fragment</div><div>query</div><div>port</div><div>8.3. HTTP</div><div><br></div><div>HTTP is the main protocol of the web. It is what your browser uses to communicate with web servers. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol.</div><div><br></div><div>A request from your browser for the URL:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com/foo</div><div><br></div><div>begins with a request line that looks something like this:</div><div><br></div><div>GET /foo HTTP/1.1</div><div>HTTP is a very simple text protocol, so this text is sent over the Internet exactly as shown. The request line has three main parts:</div><div><br></div><div>Method – the type of request we are making to the server (GET)</div><div>Path – from the URL (/foo)</div><div>Version – HTTP/version (HTTP/1.1)</div><div>The two main methods we will be considering are GET and POST.</div><div><br></div><div>The host name doesn’t appear in the request line. That is because we are already connected to the host. The host is used to make the connection, the path is used to make the request.</div><div><br></div><div>8.4. Quiz: GET</div><div><br></div><div>Given the following URL:</div><div><br></div><div>http://example.com/foo/logo.png?p=1#tricky</div><div><br></div><div>what is the request line to GET this URL using HTTP/1.1?</div><div><br></div><div>8.5. Quiz: Most Common Method</div><div><br></div><div>Which method is most often used for requesting a document from the server?</div><div><br></div><div>9. Making Requests</div><div>We had our request line that looked something like this</div><div><br></div><div>GET /foo HTTP/1.1</div><div><br></div><div>This is followed by a number of headers. Headers have this format:</div><div><br></div><div>Name: value</div><div><br></div><div>When you make a request, the request line and all of the associated headers are sent at once. Some of the more popular headers are:</div><div><br></div><div>Host: www.example.com</div><div><br></div><div>User-Agent: chrome</div><div><br></div><div>The Host header is required in HTTP/1.1 but isn’t strictly required in HTTP/1.0. We have already used the host from the URL to connect to the server, so why would we need to include it in a header? Well, web-servers may have multiple names, and one machine may host many individual websites.</div><div><br></div><div>The User-Agent header describes who is making the request. It will generally be your web-browser, which helps the server to know what type of machine is making the request.</div><div><br></div><div>10. User Agent Header</div><div>Steve talks about his experience when getting Reddit up-and-running. User-Agents are one of the most important headers in an HTTP request.</div><div><br></div><div>User-Agents were really important to Reddit. Reddit was a site that was online and really popular. Users would often write scripts and so on to pull content down from Reddit, and mostly they were doing good things. Sometimes, however users would do bad things, for example spammers looking for weaknesses or trying to gain access to the system.</div><div><br></div><div>User-Agents were important. Sometimes users would hit the site a little too hard, or too fast, hurting the website for real users. If they had a legitimate User-Agent, the team at Reddit could look at them and take steps to moderate the behaviour . The Google-bot (Google’s web crawler) was a really good example of this. However, when people turned up with fake user agents pretending to be a browser and hurting the site, then the team at Reddit would simply block them.</div><div><br></div><div>Using good User-Agents when you write software that interacts with other people’s websites it a really nice, courteous thing to do, and is one of the things that makes the web work well for everybody. So it is important to have a nice, accurate User-Agent and to be honest whenever you can.</div><div><br></div><div>10.1. Quiz: Valid Headers</div><div><br></div><div>Which of these are valid headers?</div><div><br></div><div>User Agent: chrome</div><div>Host: www.hipmunk.com</div><div>host www.example.com</div><div>User-Agent: ignore me I’m a spammer</div><div>i-made-this-up: whatever</div><div>11. http Response</div><div>OK, now that we have seen the HTTP requests, let’s take a look at HTTP responses.</div><div><br></div><div>The basic HTTP response looks similar to the HTTP request. For example, if we send the request:</div><div><br></div><div>GET /foo HTTP/1.1</div><div><br></div><div>The response may look something like:</div><div><br></div><div>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</div><div><br></div><div>This is called the status line and is analogous to the request line we saw earlier. The version in the status line should match the version in the request (HTTP/1.1). The version is followed by two additional pieces of information:</div><div><br></div><div>The status code</div><div><br></div><div>The reason phrase (an English-language description of the status code)</div><div><br></div><div>There are some really common status codes:</div><div><br></div><div>200</div><div>OK</div><div>302</div><div>Found</div><div>404</div><div>Not found</div><div>500</div><div>Server error</div><div>If the code starts with a 2 (e.g. 200), this means everything worked alright. If it starts with 3, it means there's a bit more work to be done. If it starts with 4 (e.g. 404), it indicates that there was an error on the browser side, and if it starts with 5, it means that there was a error on the server side.</div><div><br></div><div>12. Response Headers</div><div>Just like the request line we saw earlier, the status line is followed by a number of headers. Here are a few examples that are commonly included with HTTP responses:</div><div><br></div><div>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</div><div>Date: Tue Mar 2012 04:33:33 GMT</div><div>Sever: Apache / 2.2.3</div><div>Content-Type: text/html</div><div>Content-Length: 1539</div><div>The Date header should be there every time. It is the date that the request was made.</div><div><br></div><div>The Server header is similar to the User-Agent header in request line. Typically it contains the name and version number of the server. However, this could be useful information to would-be hackers, so it may be missing or contain made-up information.</div><div><br></div><div>Content-Type is simply the type of document that is being returned.</div><div><br></div><div>Content-Length is the length of the document. It is often included, but isn’t strictly required since the browser will know when the data is complete as the connection will close.</div><div><br></div><div>There follows a demonstration of using Telnet to send a request line and headers, and view the response.</div><div><br></div><div>12.1. Quiz: Telnet Request</div><div><br></div><div>Use telnet to make a request to:</div><div><br></div><div>http://www.example.com</div><div>The request is to be a GET request for the path /</div><div><br></div><div>What is the status code?</div><div><br></div><div>What is the value of the location header?</div><div><br></div><div>13. Web Applications</div><div>Most of this course is going to focus on how to run programs on servers. The purpose of a web-server is to respond to HTTP requests. There are two main classifications for server responses:</div><div><br></div><div>Static</div><div>Dynamic</div><div>Content is considered static if it is a pre-written file that the server simply returns. Examples of static content include image files.</div><div><br></div><div>More interesting are dynamic requests, which are requests where the responses are built on-the-fly by a program running on the server. Just about all the content online these days is dynamic. The programs that build these dynamic responses are called web applications.</div><div><br></div><div>A web application is just a program that generates content. It is run from the server, speaks http, and generates dynamic content requested by the browser and is what we are going to learn to build on this course.</div><div><br></div><div>13.1. Quiz: Dynamic Content</div><div><br></div><div>Which of these requests is for dynamic content?</div><div><br></div><div>Your Facebook page</div><div>The Udacity.com logo</div><div>A blog’s front page</div><div>Google search results</div><p></p><p><a href="http://wiki.udacity.com/CS253%20Unit%201">http://wiki.udacity.com/CS253%20Unit%201</a> </p><p><b><i><br></i></b></p><p></p><h1 style="margin: 0px; padding: 0.4em 0px 0px; font-size: 2.2em; font-weight: normal; -webkit-margin-before: 0px; -webkit-margin-after: 0px; color: rgb(87, 87, 87); font-family: arial, sans-serif; background-color: rgb(252, 252, 252); "><span class="text-upper" style="text-transform: uppercase; ">CS373</span>: Programming A Robotic Car</h1><p style="margin-top: 7px; margin-bottom: 7px; padding: 0px; -webkit-margin-before: 0px; -webkit-margin-after: 0px; font-size: 1.2em; font-family: arial, sans-serif; background-color: rgb(252, 252, 252); ">Learn how to program all the major systems of a robotic car from the leader of Google and Stanford's autonomous driving teams.</p><p></p><p><a href="http://www.udacity.com/overview/Course/cs373/CourseRev/apr2012">http://www.udacity.com/overview/Course/cs373/CourseRev/apr2012</a></p><p><b><i><br></i></b></p><p><b><i><br></i></b></p><p><b><i><br></i></b></p><p><b><i>Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.</i></b></p>

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Download Free Avg Anti-Virus

AVG Free Antivirus Updated Procedure

Scope: the purpose of this document is to install AVG Free Antivirus: FREE
If you want to spend money, click on all of the little popups that they present.

  1. Search the internet for AVG Free. Nothing else is acceptable: not CNET, not anything else. I selected http://www.avg.com/AVG-FREE
  2. The next page has a green box the says, “FREE Download” Click on this one.
  3. When it is finished downloading, the file name is AVG _Protection_1025.exe. The last part"1025" might be different. Don't worry about it. 
     I was using the new Microsoft browser, EDGE. I clicked on RUN at the bottom and it started the installation. 
    If your AVG installation does not start, go to Downloads and double-click on the file name.
  4. One popup box will prompt you to create an account. At the bottom, it will give you the option to Create an account later; do so if you don't want to create an account.
  5. As you go through the different pages and menus, make sure that you keep answering to Free download, Free this and Free that.
  6. One pop-up wanted to install an AVG Tuneup software for the internet browsers. In the lower left corner is a blue “Decline” Click on Decline.
  7. When the software is fully installed and has downloaded and installed updates, 4 large icons are shown:
    1. Protection Free – at the bottom, it says, “Protected”
    2. Performance – at the bottom is says, “Not Tuned Up”  DO NOT TOUCH, it will lead you down a path to get you to buy stuff.
    3. Privacy and Identity – at bottom it says, “Partially Protected”  DO NOT TOUCH, it will lead you down a path to get you to buy stuff.
    4. Web Tuneup - at the bottom, it says, “Not Installed” DO NOT TOUCH, it will lead you down a path to get you to buy stuff.
  8. It is now called AVG Zen (for some reason).
  9. I closed the program and from the Start menu, opened AVG Protection.
    1. The only thing you need to touch is “Update” and “Scan Now”
    2. Do not touch anything else unless you want to spend money.

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.

Thursday, December 8, 2011

Old slow computers: breathing life into them

Hi Relatives,

A while ago, I talked about computers being slow and we went through instructing you in using a defragmentation program as well as anti-virus and anti-malware software.

If you have an older computer, then your operating system could be slowing you down. One young person, Golden Kobi, has an older computer that his father handed down to him. It has Windows 7 on it. The problem is that Windows 7 requirements are pretty severe for an older computer. Windows 7 requires at least 1GHz CPU, 1GB of RAM memory, and at least 16GB of hard drive space.
Golden Kobi's computer sometimes runs and if it runs, it is very slow.

Solution: Linux distribution (or version) of Lubunt 11.10. This is similar to Ubuntu 11.10 but is intended for computers with limited resources, which means old and slow computers.

I have successfully installed this operating system on a 10 year old Compaq Presario laptop and it works great! You might not be able to run demanding games or have 30 tabs open on your web browser, but you can do web surfing, write documents, and create graphic images quickly and easily.
The software is free and it works great. Most programs that you have been using, are now available for the Linux format. Microsoft Office suite has been very successfully replaced with Oracle's OpenOffice and an independent spin-off from OpenOffice, LibreOffice.
These office suites are very popular world-wide and are almost exactly like Microsoft Office. Microsoft Office is the premier office suite, but I've been using OpenOffice and LibreOffice for several years and I love them. There is only one thing I can think of that these two suites don't have is a multiple-level clipboard (meaning that you can have multiple cut-n-paste items available), but I have found a way around that with Clip-O-Matic for Windows (I'm working to find one for Linux). It does the same thing only better.
The best thing is that these office suites are very good, professional and free.

A Great Idea: ship your laptop to me and I will get it working, free. Just the cost of shipping both ways (remove the battery) and of course, donations are always appreciated.

There are other operating systems besides the ones I stated above.  If you have special requirements, let me know and we see if there is Linux program (distribution) that is better suited for you.

Welcome to the home of love, where your computer gets to know of hugs. Take the time to give it love, to ensure the spine stands, on the test of time (until you update protection files again). For only you can operate the golden rule, do unto your computer, who knows who to fool. But we do outwit the slyest fox, when we give love instead of gloves (put them up, combative forces). The greatest part of protection is clear, the smooth operation of moving in space is dear (world wide web). Protect my computer God above to bring the Angels down below. Bless and bless the common place, to be rest assured that all is grace.